Geochemical data and geological interpretation
termite mounds in grassy clearing

porphyry type copper mineralisation
hydrothermal alteration


Between 1967 and 1985 Christopher worked as an exploration geologist in Zambia, Kenya and Saudi Arabia.

In Zambia he worked on pegmatite-hosted tin-tantalum-niobium mineralisation, on porphyry-copper type mineralisation, and on various industrial minerals. He compiled a database of mineral occurrences of Zambia, and produced the first definitive mineral map. He introduced the use of the first Landsat imagery for structural mapping, and experimented in Landsat applications for mineral exploration. He also operated an independent consultancy for three years, providing geological and geophysical services for groundwater exploration, engineering site investigations and mineral exploration.

In Kenya, he was field manager for a United Nations Revolving Fund project in a greenstone belt in the south west of the country, looking for volcanic-associated massive sulphide deposits and ironstone-hosted gold.

In Saudi Arabia, he worked for the Deputy Ministry for Mineral Resources in Jiddah, initially undertaking a review of known base and precious metal mineralisation in the Kingdom, and later managing a multi-disciplinary exploration campaign for volcanic-associated mineralisation in the Samran-Shayban district. During his time in Saudi Arabia, he became increasingly involved in the use of remote sensing, both satellite (Landsat) and airborne (Daedelus scanner), and developed an Intergraph-based GIS of geology and mineralisation in the Jabal Shayban area.

Moving to full-time remote sensing in 1985, he managed a team of scientists working on applications development at the UK National Remote Sensing Centre, Farnborough. He continued to work with geological applications, especially of multi-spectral thermal imaging, and also monitoring environmental aspects of open-cast mining. He was a founder member of the Geological Remote Sensing Group (GRSG) of the Geological Society of London in 1989

Returning to geology in 2008, he undertook a geological interpretation of an area in North-Western Province of Zambia using Landsat ETM and Aster imagery, plus airborne geophysical data. This was followed by field checking and management of detailed stream sediment geochemistry. He also combined geochemical, geophysical and remote sensing data to assist with exploration of probable porphyry copper mineralisation in Zambia, He has undertaken spectral remote sensing studies and air photo interpretation of potentially mineralised areas in Archaean, Proterozoic and Tertiary volcanic terranes in Cameroon, South Sudan and Ethiopia. He has developed exploration programmes for coal in Zimbabwe and copper in Zambia, and has undertaken desk studies of mineral prospects in Zambia, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Sierra Leone, Senegal and Tanzania.

A training course in Geological Remote Sensing, with lectures, manual and worked examples, has been developed for use in Africa. A new book on applications of Remote Sensing and GIS for geological mapping and mineral exploration was released as an E-book in Kindle, Nook and Kobo formats in February 2014. download sample chapters.

Christopher is now a geological Data Analyst for Progressive Research, preparing evaluation reports for junior mining companies based in Britain. Research reports have recently been prepared for Greatland Gold and Thor Mining, both operating in Australia.

Download Geological Publications

See the LINKS page of the website for a list of downloadable papers, reports and presentations